Indira Gandhi Biography | इंदिरा गांधी की जीवनी


Indira Gandhi Biography | इंदिरा गांधी की जीवनी

Indira Gandhi Biography

Indira Gandhi Biography

Full name – Indira Firoz Gandhi
Birth – 19th September 1917
Birthplace – Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh)
Father – Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
Mata – Kamala Jawaharlal Nehru
Education – Allahabad, Pune, Bombay, Kolkata, their training took place this place. For higher education, he gained admission at the Oxford University of England; Some Karanavans had to return to their country without leaving a degree without teaching.
Marriage – 1942 with Feroz Gandhi

The early life of Indira Gandhi

Indira Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917, in the famous Nehru family of Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh. His full name was ‘Indira Priyadarshini’.

His father was Jawaharlal Nehru and Dada Motilal Nehru. Both Jawaharlal and Motilal were successful lawyers, and both of them had made significant contributions in the freedom struggle.

The name of Indira’s mother was Kamala Nehru. His family was very prosperous in both economic and intellectual perspectives. His grandfather Motilal Nehru named his Indira.

Indira was very dear to be seen, so Pandit Nehru used to call him ‘Priyadarshini’.

Indira Gandhi Biography

Indira’s attractive personality was found in the form of heritage. Indira Gandhi could not see stable family life in her childhood as the father was always busy in the freedom movement and when she was 18, her mother Kamala Nehru also walked with tuberculosis.

Due to the political agility of father and mother’s poor health, Indira was not able to get a favourable education environment even after some years of her birth.

The environment of the house was not conducive to studies due to the arrival of political workers by night and day. Hence Pandit Nehru had arranged teachers for his education at home.

Indira could not acquire any special skills in the subject other than the English question. After this, he was sent to read in ‘World-Bharati’ of ‘Shanti Niketan’ founded by Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore.

Indira Gandhi Biography

After that, Indira studied at the Badminton School and Oxford University in London, but she could not show any special skills in studies and was a mediocre student.

During the study at Oxford University, he was often met by Feroze Gandhi, who was studying at the London School of Economics.

Feroz knew only Indira from Allahabad. On returning to India, both of them got married in Anand Bhawan, Allahabad on March 16, 1942.

Indira Gandhi Biography

Contribution to Indira Gandhi’s Independence Movement

Indira had seen the political atmosphere at home since childhood. His father and grandfather were one of the prominent leaders of India’s freedom movement. The effect of this environment was also on Indira.

He created a monkey army with the help of young boys and girls who used to circulate protests and flag procession as well as sensitive publications and restricted material.

During his studies in London, he became a member of the Indian League. Indira returned to India from Oxford in 1941.

Indira Gandhi Biography

After coming, he joined the Indian Independence Movement. During the freedom movement, he was arrested in September 1942, after which the government released him in May 1943.

During the riots and chaos spread after partition, Indira Gandhi did a vital work to organise refugee camps and take care of refugees from Pakistan.

Indira Gandhi Biography

Indira Gandhi Biography

Indira Gandhi’s political life

Jawaharlal Nehru became the caretaker Prime Minister with the formation of the interim government. After this Nehru’s political activism increased further.

Indira arranged the visit of all visitors to Nehruji’s residence at Trimurti Bhawan.

Along with this, the responsibility of looking after the needs of an ageing father was also done on Indira. He became the trustee, secretary and nurse of Pandit Nehru.

Indira had inherited political ideology in the family environment and helped her father-she had a good understanding of politics too.

They were included in the Congress party’s executive council in 1955. Pandit Nehru used to do a political consultation with them, and he used to follow them.

Indira Gandhi Biography

Gradually, Indira’s stature grew in the party, and at the age of 42, she became the Congress president in 1959.

On Nehru’s decision, many people accused him of spreading familyism in the party, but Pandit Nehru’s strength was so high that these things did not get much weight.

After the demise of Nehru in 1964, Indira became the Information and Broadcasting Minister in the Shastri Government after winning the elections.

Indira Gandhi Biography

Indira took this new responsibility efficiently, and as a Minister of Information and Broadcasting, the programs of Akashwani made fun and made a qualitative increase in it.

During the Indo-Pak war in 1965, Aakashwani made a unique contribution in strengthening the spirit of nationalism.

Indira Gandhi on the borders during the war heightened the morale of the soldiers and showed the qualities of their leadership.

Indira Gandhi Biography

Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister

Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister of India four times – three consecutive times (1966-1977) and then for the fourth time (1980-84).

1 – After the sudden death of the second Prime Minister of India Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1966, Mrs Indira Gandhi was elected the Prime Minister of India.

2 – In the 1967 elections, he won with a tiny majority and became the Prime Minister.

3 – Once again in 1971, he became the Prime Minister with an overwhelming majority and remained till 1977.

4 – Once again in 1980, he became the Prime Minister and remained Prime Minister until 1984.

Indira Gandhi Biography

After the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri, Congress President Kamaraj recommended Indira’s name for the post of Prime Minister but senior leader Morarji Desai also proposed the name of himself for the position of Prime Minister.

This stalemate was resolved through voting by the Congress Parliamentary Party, and Indira Gandhi won with significant votes.

On January 24, 1966, Indira Gandhi took the oath of office of Prime Minister. The Congress suffered a lot in the elections of 1967, but the party succeeded in forming the government.

On the other hand, a Khemma under the leadership of Morarji Desai continued to oppose Indira Gandhi, which resulted in the division of the Congress in 1969.

Indira Gandhi Biography

Role of Indira Gandhi in the 1971 election

To strengthen its position in the party and the country, Indira Gandhi dissolved the Lok Sabha and declared the mid-term elections, which left the opposition unhappy.

Indira Gandhi came out in the election with the slogan “Garibi Hatao” and gradually started creating an electoral atmosphere in her favour and the Congress got a lot of votes. Of the total 518 seats, Congress got 352 seats.

The results of the election had cleared that the public had rejected the ‘Grand Alliance’ (a coalition of Congress (O), Jana Sangh and Independent Party).

Now the position of Indira Gandhi in the centre became very strong, and she was free to make independent decisions.

Indira Gandhi Biography

Indira Gandhi’s role in Pakistan war

In 1971, war broke out in the Indo-Pak issue on Bangladesh issue and once again Pakistan had to face a similar blow. On December 13, the Indian armies surrounded Dhaka with all directions.

On December 16, General Niazi put armed forces with 93,000 Pak soldiers. After the defeat in the war, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became the new President of Pakistan and proposed a peace dialogue before India which Indira Gandhi accepted and then there was a Shimla agreement between the two countries.

Indira Gandhi did not join the American camp and extended friendship and cooperation to the Soviet Union, resulting in political and military support contributing substantially to India’s victory in the 1971 war.

Indira Gandhi Biography

After the Pakistan War, Indira Gandhi put her attention towards the development of the country. In Parliament, he had a full majority, and there was freedom in decision-making.

He nationalised the insurance and coal industry in 1972. Both of these decisions have received immense popular support.

Also, he implemented many improvements in land reform, social welfare and the world of economics.

Indira Gandhi Biography

Emergency (1975 – 1977)

Indira Gandhi had great success in the elections of 1971, and she also tried to implement new programs of development in different areas, but the problems in the country were increasing.

People were upset due to the price rise. Economic problems of the war also led to financial issues. Meanwhile, droughts and famine spoiled the situation.

On the other hand, inflation was rising in India due to rising petroleum prices in the international market and the country’s foreign exchange reserves were shrinking rapidly due to the import of petroleum.

Overall, there was a period of economic slowdown in which industry businesses were being scattered.

Indira Gandhi Biography

The unemployment also had increased considerably, and government employees were demanding wage-growth due to the severe price hike. Among all these problems, allegations of corruption on the government were also started.

The government was struggling with all these problems; in the meantime, the Allahabad High Court cancelled the election by giving a crucial ruling on a lawsuit related to the election of Indira Gandhi and banned them for contesting elections for six years.

Indira appealed against this decision in the Supreme Court and the court fixed July 14, but the opposition did not wait till July 14.

Indira Gandhi Biography

Jai Prakash Narayan and the supported opposition made the agitation aggravating. On 26th June 1975, an emergency was announced in the country, and Jai Prakash Narayan, Morarji Desai and thousands of other prominent leaders were arrested and put in jail to counter these circumstances.

Government newspaper, radio and TV But the sensor put on. Fundamental rights were almost also ended.

Indira announced the Lok Sabha elections in January 1977, and with this, the release of political prisoners was released.

The freedom of the media was restored, and freedom of political meetings and election campaign was given.

Indira Gandhi Biography

Perhaps Indira Gandhi could not accurately assess the situation. Now the support of the public began to meet the opposition, which led to the debate becoming more empowered.

As a ‘Janta Party’, the consolidated opposition and its allies received 330 out of 542 seats while Indira Gandhi’s Congress party could only get 154 seats.

Indira Gandhi returns to power.

Under the leadership of 81-year-old Morarji Desi, the Janata Party formed the government on March 23, 1977, but

Indira Gandhi returns to power.

The Janata Party, under the leadership of 81-year-old Morarji Desi, formed the government on March 23, 1977, but this government struggled with internal strife from the beginning and ultimately fell to the government in August 1979 due to the interval.

Indira Gandhi Biography

During the Janata Party rule, many allegations were made against Indira Gandhi, and many were appointed for commission inquiry.

They were also sued in many courts of the country and on the charge of government corruption, Mrs Gandhi remained in jail for some time.

On the one hand, due to interruption of the Janata Party, his government was failing on all fronts and the other hand, due to the behaviour of Indira Gandhi, the public was growing sympathy with Indira Gandhi.

Indira Gandhi Biography

The Janata Party failed to run the government, and the country had to bear the burden of mid-term elections.

Indira Gandhi apologised to the people for the emergency, which resulted in her party getting 353 out of 592 seats and Indira Gandhi became Prime Minister again.

Operation Blue Star and Murder, 1984

Under the leadership of Bhindranwale, separatist forces began to raise their heads in Punjab, and Bhindranwale felt that under his direction he would make Punjab a different entity.

The situation had worsened, and it seemed that the control was now going out of the hands of the central government.

On the other hand, Bhindranwale began to feel that he could make a separate entity by weapons.

Indira Gandhi Biography

In September 1981, the terrorist group of Bhindranwale was deployed inside the Harimandir Sahib campus.

To wreak terrorists, Indira Gandhi ordered the army to enter the shrine.

Indira Gandhi Biography

Thousands were known during this proceeding, and there was great indignation against Indira Gandhi in the Sikh community.

After five months of Operation Blue Star, two Sikh bodyguards of Indira Gandhi shot and killed them on October 31, 1984.

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